Historiography

Classification of History

For the convenience of study, historians have divided history into various parts or branches. Every such part is complete in itself. No one can be called a true historian if he has read only a part of this long and varied journey of the progress of mankind. A true historian is one who has read all the branches of history.

BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION

Based on SPACE OR GEOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARIES,

ü World history

ü National history

ü Provincial or regional history

ü Local history

Based on TIME OR PERIOD,

ü History of early ages

ü Ancient history

ü Medieval history

ü Modern history  

Based on CIRCUMSTANCES,

ü Political history

ü Economic history

ü Social history

The description of the these are given here;

World History

Now educationists have come to realize that at the secondary level of education history should be taught in the background of world history, however, such a background should be sketchy only and should not go into details of world history

Since it will not be possible to take up world history at the elementary school stage because at this stage the students are too young to understand things or even events beyond their immediate social and physical environment. At this stage, we can teach them the biographies of some prominent “world figures” or great men of the world. At the middle stage, we can introduce the study of certain important social and religious movements. Finally, a comprehensive course of world history in a sketchy form be taught at the higher secondary stage

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NATIONAL HISTORY

The nation is a geographical, social and political entity of the world the similar units in a country are known as regions for historical studies. Though we have varieties of traditions which differ from state to state and each state has a history of its own. The history teacher has to present a comparative picture of these various histories but always keeping in mind to not let the unity of the spirit of oneness slip of his hands.

REGIONAL HISTORY

Regions are similar units in a country. The usefulness of such a study lies in the fact that each region has got a fascinating history. Different sages and seers, political leaders, social reformers from across the country have kept alive the great traditions of Indian culture and civilization in their respective areas, however, their teachings never remained confined to any particular area or region but effected Indian life as a whole.

LOCAL HISTORY

The materials in and around his neighborhood will stimulate more interest in the child and it could be a profitable starting point in the teaching of history. The history teacher must familiarize this to the students with their immediate surroundings and make the fullest possible use of such information in further enrichment of their knowledge of history.

IMPORTANCE

ü The children became acquainted with the local customs and traditions which broadens their outlook.

ü It is quite interesting to the students because it is related to their ancestors.

ü It develops in students emotional feelings towards their religion

ü It develops in students a scientific outlook

METHOD OF THE STUDY OF LOCAL HISTORY

ü Excursions and tours should be arranged.

ü An attempt should be made to present a history of the local community and social groups.

ü They should be encouraged to know the history of the names of the roads of the locality.

ü During the teaching of the history of higher classes, the teacher should often refer to Local history for illustrating the influence of the past on the present and to make clear how the present is the product of the past.

HISTORY OF EARLY AGES

It includes the history of the stone age. In those days life was difficult and it was quite difficult to get food, clothing, dwelling units, etc. He lived in open space, resorted to hunting for his food and used barks of trees or skin of animals to cover his body. This story of man’s life in different parts of the world is quite interesting to the children and enables them to understand how civilization has developed through the ages.

Medieval AGES

During this period human civilization progressed a good deal. From the Indian point of view, this is called the period of Rajputs and Muslims. So far as the religious conditions are concerned, it was the age of multifarious religions.

MODERN PERIOD

The modern period is the period of the highest development of culture and civilization. Various political, social, economic and religious changes have taken place during this period. Science, literature, art, etc., have worked wonders. It shall not be wrong to call it an Age of science. It is an Age of Space Conquest.

POLITICAL HISTORY

When political history is taught, the changes made in social and economical should also be taught simultaneously.

SOCIAL HISTORY

It deals with the development of family and related problems such as social organization, traditions, education, agriculture, etc. Thus, it is a very wide subject and actually, it indirectly deals with political history, It should be taught very cautiously and never in isolation.

ECONOMIC HISTORY

The economic condition of a country is the basis for social behavior. The reason for war and peace is based on the economic condition of the country. The economic concepts are being the main reason for the political thought of a country.

RELIGIOUS HISTORY

It says that religion has influenced our civilization and culture since the early ages. All the political and social events have taken place only on account of religion. Form this point of view, the study of Religious History is very important. While teaching Religious History, the teacher has to present things in a very objective manner. He should not criticize any religion because this is likely to hurt the susceptibilities of the followers of that religion.

References

Chakravarti, A., (2012). History, Historical thought, and Historiography. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd, India.

Sheikh Ali, B. (1978). History: Its Theory and Method. New Delhi; Macmillan India Limited

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